Saturday, August 6, 2011


[Industrial Pollution Abatement through preventive strategies,
Development and Promotion of Cleaner Technologies, Taj Protection
Mission, Environmental Health, Noise Pollution, Air Pollution, Vehicular
Pollution Control, Industrial Pollution Control, Common Effluent
Treatment Plants, Zoning Atlas, Establishment of Environment Protection
Authority, Central Pollution Control Board, Hazardous Substances
The enhanced pace of developmental activities and rapid urbanization have resulted in
stress on natural resources and quality of life. The trend of increasing pollution in various
environmental media is evident from the deteriorating air and water quality, higher noise
levels, increasing vehicular emission etc. Realising the urgent need for arresting the trend,
Ministry adopted policy for Abatement of Pollution which provides for several mechanisms
in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures to
prevent and abate pollution. Further, realizing that conventional pollution control approach
by treatment at the end of the pipe is not delivering the desired benefits in terms of resource
conservation, the thrust has been shifted to pollution prevention and control through
promotion of clean and low waste technology, re-use and recycling, natural resource
accounting, Environmental Audit and Institutional and Human Resource Development. To
give effect to various measures and policies on ground, multi-pronged approach is adopted
which includes stringent regulations, Development of Environmental Standards, Control of
Vehicular Pollution, preparation of Zoning Atlas for Spatial Environmental Planning
including Industrial Estates etc.
 Major activities carried out under several programmes/schemes during the year are as
follows :
Industrial Pollution Abatement through preventive strategies
 This scheme is an amalgamation of the three on-going schemes viz. Environmental
Audit, Adoption of Clean Technologies in Small Scale Industries and Environmental
Statistics and Mapping, which have been continuing since eighth Five Year Plan. Due to
encouraging results and benefits to various small scale units, these schemes are being
continued during the 10
 Five Year Plan also: Environmental Statement (As a part of Environmental Audit)
 Environmental audit is a management tool and provides a structure and comprehensive
mechanism for ensuring that the activities and products of an enterprise do no cause
unacceptable effects on the environment. Submission of an Environmental Statement by
polluting units seeking consent either under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act, 1974 or the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 or both and the
Authorization under the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 has
been made mandatory through a Gazette Notification of April, 1993 under the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986. The Environmental Statement enables the units to undertake a
comprehensive look at their industrial operations and facilities, understanding of material
flows and focus on areas where waste reduction and consequently saving in-put cost if
possible. The primary benefit of environmental audit is that it ensures cost effective
compliance of laws, standards, regulations, company policies etc.
 During the year, action has been initiated to evolve model environmental statements in
various sectors for facilitating comparison in use of raw material, water conservation, energy
consumption etc. A project has been sponsored to Central Pollution Control Board for
evolving model environmental statement in the eight sectors viz. Sugar, Thermal Power
Projects, Cement, Paper and Pulp, Pesticides, Bulk Drugs, Tanneries and Textiles Activities.
Waste Minimisation/Cleaner Production
 Waste minimization is one of the strategies adopted for minimizing the industrial
pollution. The objective of the scheme is to assist the small and medium scale industry in
adoption of cleaner production practices. A project has been sponsored to National
Productivity Council on “Waste Minimisation in Small Scale Industries” for establishment
and running of waste minimization circles in clusters of small scale industries, capacity
building in areas of cleaner production, establishment of demonstration units in selected
industrial sectors etc. So far 115 waste minimization circles have been established through
out the country and a large number of Organizations and Institutions have been trained in
waste minimization activities. The project was executed till November, 2002 under the World
Bank project on Industrial Pollution Prevention (IPP) as Phase-I and Phase-II is now being
continued with Ministry’s internal funds. Implementation of this project has helped in
identification of more than 200 options for resource and energy conservation in various small
scale industries.
Environmental Statistics and Mapping
 For sound Environmental Management, reliable information base and the mapping of
areas needing special attention for pollution prevention and control are a pre-requisite. As a
step in the direction, projects and pilot studies have been initiated through various research
institutions and organizations. Under this program, following studies have been initiated and
are in various stages of completion :
- GIS based Hydrological Modelling for Water Quality and Quantity in Cauvery River
Basin by IIT, Delhi.
- Geochemical baseline Mapping for Environmental Management by National
Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad.
Development and Promotion of Cleaner TechnologiesLife Cycle Assessment (LCA)
 Life Cycle Assessment is a decision cum management tool which provides information
on the environmental effects of various products and processes so as to arrive at necessary
corrective measures to make the entire process efficient with optimal utilization of resources
and minimal wastes generation. LCA studies have been initiated in various sectors namely;
Steel, Pulp and Paper and Thermal Power. The study in the Steel Sector was completed
earlier and the report is under preparation. The study relating to the Thermal Power Sector
has been completed during the year while the study in the Pulp and Paper Sector is
progressing as per schedule.
Industrial Ecology Opportunities in Ankleshwar and Nandesari Industrial
Estates, Gujarat
 A study was undertaken to develop and implement Industrial Ecology Opportunities in
Ankleshwar and Nandesari Industrial Estates of Gujarat. The study has examined
technologies used by industries in this region and suggested possible approach to achieve
eco-efficiency within the industrial estates to reuse and recycle wastes and effluents
generated from different industrial units. The recommendations of the study have been
discussed in a workshop with all stakeholders including State Government Agencies for their
implementation and an Action Plan is being drawnup by them.
Development of Market Based Instruments for Regional Environmental
Management in the Kawas-Hazira Region in Gujarat
 The ongoing project on Development of Market Based Instruments for Kawas-Hazira
Region of Gujarat has been completed. The study report has observed that the taxes and
incentives based on efficiency improvements align the pollution control agencies better with
the polluters than the Command and Control (CAC) regime. Such an instrument also
facilitates prescribing incentives for achieving the triple bottom line, viz economic-efficiency,
environment-responsibility, and social-relevance entitling the Corporate to Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) and other cleaner-production benefits. The
recommendations of the study have been discussed in a workshop with all concerned.
Field Demonstration and Development of Bamboo Based Composites/Panels
 The ongoing project on field demonstration and development of bamboo based
composites/panels was continued during the year. Under this project, commercial production
of horizontal and vertical laminates have been made using Bambusa bamboo Species.
Construction of demonstration houses will be taken up during the current year.
Recycling of Marble Slurry in Udaipur, Rajasthan
 A two years duration project has been sponsored for the manufacture of bricks and tiles
from marble slurry in Udaipur, Rajasthan with the aim of utilizing wastes arising out of
marble cutting and processing for the purpose of improving the local environment.
Bio-remediation of Railadevi Lake in Thane, Maharashtra
 A project relating to cleaning of Railadevi Lake in Thane District in Maharashtra using
bio-remediation technique has been sponsored to Thane Municipal Corporation.
Development of Natural Dyes from Forest WastesA three years duration project has been sponsored to Forest Research Institute, Dehradun for
development of natural dyes from forest wastes.
Taj Protection Mission
 As per the Hon’ble Supreme Court’s Order the protection of the Taj Mahal is a National
priority for the country. In order to implement various schemes for the protection of the
monument, the Planning Commission decided to provide additional funds to the State
Government. The Planning Commission approved Rs.600 crores on a 50:50 cost sharing
basis with the concerned State Government to implement various schemes in the Taj
Trapezium Zone in the context of environmental protection of the Taj Mahal. In the first
phase during the Ninth Five Year Plan, 10 projects were approved and are being
implemented. These are :-
- Improvement in Electric Supply at Agra
- Improvement in Electric Supply in and around the rural areas of Agra and Fatehpur Sikri
- Water supply (Agra)
- Water Supply (Mathura-Vrindavan)
- Gokul Barrage
- Solid Waste Management
- Storm Water Drainage System (Agra)
- Construction of one part of Agra bye-pass
- Widening of Agra Bye-pass
- Improvement of Master Plan of Roads of Agra City
 The Mission Management Board of the Taj Protection Programme has approved another
seven projects to be taken up during the Tenth Five Year Plan. These are :
- Taj Trapezium Zone Heritage Corridor covering the areas of Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Ram
Bagh, Emad-ud-Daula, Chinni-ka-Rauza and river Yamuna.
- Taj Trapezium Zone Authority Environmental Centre and Allied Schemes.
- Planning of Taj Trapezium Zone and Study of Taj Ecocity / Conceptual  Plan / Master
- Automatic Air Monitoring Stations, Display Boards and Networking at Agra-Mathura
and Firozabad.
- Hazardous Waste Secured Land-fill site for Agra and Mathura.
- Common Treatment Facility for Treatment of Bio-medical Wastes at Agra, and
- Public Awareness Programme in Taj Trapezium
 These projects have been reviewed and steps have been taken for clearance of the EFC
Memo of these Projects.
Environmental Health Environmental Health Cell of the Ministry has commissioned nine environmental health
studies in the cities of Ludhiana, Delhi, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Manali
(Tamil Nadu), Bangalore and Trivandrum for documenting Environmental Health Profile so
that necessary corrective measures could be evolved and addressed for pollution control and
protection of public health. The Ministry in collaboration with the World Health
Organisation, World Bank, the United States Environmental Protection Authority, United
States AID and Confederation of Indian Industry organized a two-day Conference on
Environmental Health at New Delhi on 20-21 November, 2002 to sensitise the issues among
the Central and State Government and other stakeholders in the country but also to come up
with the consensus on the issues to act upon and to evolve strategies for the protection of
public health.
 The recommendations have been finalized and are to be implemented depending on
availability of resources and infrastructure
Noise Pollution
 An increasing trend of noise pollution has been observed in the major cities of the
country. To regulate and control noise pollution, the Government has issued various
notifications under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. During the year noise limits for
diesel generator sets (upto 1000 KVA) manufactured on or after 1
 July, 2003, were notified
on 17
 May, 2002. The maximum permissible sound pressure level for new diesel generator
sets with rated capacity upto 1000 KVA shall not exceed 75 dB(A) at the distance of one
metre from the enclosure surface. It has been made mandatory for the diesel generator sets to
provide integral acoustic enclosure at the manufacturing stage itself. The State Pollution
Control Boards and the Pollution Control Committees will regulate these limits.
 A Notification on Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 was issued vide
S.O. 123(E) on 14
 February, 2000 to curtail noise pollution in the country. Accordingly, the
use of loudspeakers and public address systems were restricted during night between 10.00
p.m. and 6.00 a.m. except for the closed auditorium, banquet halls, etc. Owing to various
representations received from State Governments, these rules have been amended vide
Notification S.O. 1088(E) issued on 11
 October, 2002 to permit the use of loudspeakers or
public address system during night hours (between 10.00 p.m. to 12.00 midnight) on or
during any cultural or religious festival for a limited duration not exceeding 15 days in all
during a calendar year.
 Noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage were notified vide GSR 7(E) on 25
September, 2000 which would be effective from 1
 January, 2003. To make these standards
commensurate with the emission standards for vehicles, the notified rules have been revised
and are phased out in two stages. In the first phase, two wheelers, three wheelers, and
passenger cars would comply with the notified norms from 1
 January, 2003. A relaxation of
3dB(A) has been given to passenger and commercial vehicles of various categories and
would become effective from 1
 July, 2003. In the second phase, noise limits for vehicles at
manufacturing stage would be applicable on and from 1
 April, 2005 which would be at par
with EC norms and based on engine power for various categories of vehicles.
 Hon’ble Supreme Court, in September, 2001 has passed an interim order to comply with
the notification of the Ministry issued on 5
 October, 1999 to control noise from the bursting of fire crackers, which shall not exceed 125 dB(AI) and 145 dB(C)
 The manufacture, sale .
and use of fire crackers should be restricted accordingly. While communicating this order to
all State Governments and Union Territories, they have been requested to conduct the surveys
to assess the noise pollution before and on Deepawali day. Some of the surveys have been
conducted during the years of 2001 and 2002. The findings of the surveys indicate a
decreasing trend of noise during the festive season.
 For creating awareness and for effective implementation of the rules and regulations for
control of noise, a workshop was organized at West Bengal Pollution Control Board on 4
and 5
 December, 2002 to train the officials of State Pollution Control Boards and the
officials of Police Department of Eastern States.
Air Pollution
 With a view to ascertain the ambient air quality at various locations, a monitoring
network has been established comprising of 295 stations covering 98 cities/towns in 29 States
and three Union Territories under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, as
amended in 1988. Under this programme, four criteria air pollutants viz. Sulphur dioxide
), oxides of nitrogen (NOx
), Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable
Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) are regularly monitored at all the locations. Besides
this, additional parameters such as respirable lead and other toxic trace matters and polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons are also being monitored in 10 metro cities of the country. The
ambient air quality is monitored by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in coordination
with the State Pollution Control Boards, Pollution Control Committees and some of the
universities and research institutes. The data, thus generated, are transmitted to CPCB for
scrutinisation, analysis, compilation and publication as a consolidated report. The monitoring
results indicate that levels of Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide are within the stipulated
standards, whereas the levels of SPM and RSPM occasionally exceed, especially in Central
and Northern parts of the country due to natural dust and vehicular emissions.
 The air quality of different cities/towns for three critical pollutants has been compared
with the respective national ambient air quality standards and has been classified into four
broad categories based on an Exceedence Factor (EF) as calculated by the following ratio:
   Observed Annual mean
   Concentration of criteria pollutant
Exceedence Factor =
   Annual standard for the Respective
   pollutant and area class
The four air quality categories are :
Critical pollution (C)   : When EF is more than 1.5
High pollution (H)  : When the EF is between 1.0-1.5
Moderate pollution (M) : With and EF between 0.5-1.0
Low pollution (L)   : Where the EF is less than 0.5
 Based upon the indicators stated above, a quarterly report is compiled by CPCB in some
of the major cities. For real time data collection, automatic monitoring stations have also been established. Under the Male declaration, 11 automatic monitoring stations are also planned at
strategic locations to measure the trans-boundary movement of pollutants among the South
Asia Association of Region Co-operations (SAARC) Countries. CPCB has also initiated indepth studies in the cities of Delhi and Kanpur to measures the level of PM10
 and PM2.5
 To regulate and control air pollution, the source specific standards are notified from time
to time. During the year 2002, emission standards for new diesel generator sets upto 800 KW
were notified on 17
 May, 2002 vide GSR 371(E). These rules shall apply to all new diesel
engines for Gensets manufactured in India or imported into India after the effective date. All
engines upto 20 KV shall carry ISI mark and meet the relevant BIS specifications. Emission
standards for diesel generator sets of more than 800 KW had also been notified on 9
2002 vide GSR 489(E). These standards shall be regulated by the State Pollution Control
Boards or Pollution Control Committees as the case may be. It has also been made mandatory
for all the diesel generator sets upto 800 KVA or more to use the liquid fuel specified for
commercial. High Speed Diesel (HSD) applicable for diesel vehicles in the area from time to
Vehicular Pollution Control
 The Ministry plays a coordinating role in the field of controlling of vehicular pollution
with the concerned Ministries and its associated bodies/organizations including the Ministry
of Surface Transport, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and the Ministry of Industry
for upgradation of automobile technology, improvement in fuel quality, expansion of urban
public transport systems and promotion of integrated traffic management as the vehicular
emissions is the major cause for deterioration of urban ambient air quality. The Gross
Emission Standards for vehicles have been prescribed from time to time and a road map is
prepared to improve the quality of the fuel.
 The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas also constituted an Expert Committee on
Auto Fuel Policy under the Chairmanship of  Dr. R. A. Mashelkar, Director General, Council
of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to recommend an Auto Fuel Policy for the
country together with a road map for its implementation. The Committee was represented by
the Ministry and significant contribution was made in preparation of the Policy. The
Committee has submitted its final report to the Government of India in August, 2002 and the
recommendations of this Committee are under consideration for implementation.
 As per the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court in W.P. No. 13029 of 1985 by M.C.
Mehta vs. Union of India and others, the Ministry coordinated the preparation of action plans
for control of vehicular pollution for compulsory switch over to CNG/LPG in the cities of
Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune and Kanpur which were found to be equally or more polluted
than Delhi. The implementation of the plan submitted for these cities is being reviewed.
 Nine cities viz. Agra, Varanasi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Faridabad, Jharia, Jodhpur, Patna
and Pune were also identified for  improving air quality. Action plans for these cities are
being coordinated by the Ministry.
 Promotion of the Ethanol Blended Petrol and Bio-diesel have also been taken up and
Ethanol Blended Petrol has been introduced in the selective States as a first phase.
Industrial Pollution Control
Status of pollution control in 17 categories of Identified Polluting Industries The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has identified 1551 large and medium
industries in 17 categories of highly polluting industries, contributing maximum to the
pollution load. They have been given time schedule to install necessary pollution control
equipments to comply with the prescribed standards. The progress of compliance is
monitored periodically and quarterly reports are given by CPCB based on the inputs received
from the concerned State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs). As on 31.12.2002, out of 1551
industries, 1351 industries have so far provided the necessary pollution control facilities, 178
industries have been closed down and the remaining 22 industries are defaulting. Legal action
has been taken under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 in respect of all the defaulting
units and in many cases, the matter is pending before the Hon’ble Supreme Court. Almost all
the defaulting units are either in the advance stage of installing the pollution control measures
or under legal action for default. A state-wise summary status of the pollution control in 17
categories of industries and a category-wise summary status are given in Table-9 and 10
State-wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Industries
(as per information available with CPCB as on December 31, 2002)
Sl. No. State/UT Total No.  Status (No. of units)
  of units Closed C# Defaulters ##
01. Andhra Pradesh 173 29 144 00
02. Arunachal Pradesh 00 00 00 00
03. Assam 15 03 11 01
04. Bihar 44 19 25 00
05. Chattisgarh 16 01 14 01
06. Goa 16 00 06 00
07. Gujarat 177 07 170 00
08. Haryana 43 06 37 00
09. Himachal Pradesh 09 00 09 00
10. Jammu & Kashmir 08 03 05 00
11. Jharkhand 18 03 13 02
12. Karnataka 85 09 76 00
13. Kerala 28 06 22 00
14. Madhya Pradesh 62 11 48 03
15. Maharashtra 335 24 306 05
16. Manipur 00 00 00 00
17. Meghalaya 01 00 01 00
18. Mizoram 00 00 00 00
19. Nagaland 00 00 00 00
20. Orissa 23 03 16 04
21. Punjab 45 06 39 00
22. Rajasthan 49 06 43 00
23. Sikkim 01 00 01 00
24. Tamil Nadu 119 02 117 00
25. Tripura 00 00 00 00
26. UT-Andaman & Nicobar 00 00 00 00
27. UT-Chandigarh 01 00 01 00
28. UT-Daman & Diu,    Dadra & Nagar Haveli 00 00 00 00
29. UT-Delhi 05 01 04 00
30. UT-Lakshadweep 00 00 00 00
31. UT-Pondicherry 06 01 05 00
32. Uttaranchal 17 00 17 00
33. Uttar Pradesh 207 21 183 03
34. West Bengal 58 17 38 03
 Total 1551 178 1351 22
# Having adequate facilities to comply with the standards
## Not having adequate facilities to comply with the standards
Category-wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Industries
(as per information available with CPCB as on September 30, 2002)
Sl. No. Category Total No.           Status (No. of units)
  of Units Closed C# Defaulters##
01. Aluminium 07 01 06 00
02. Castic 25 00 25 00
03. Cement 116 08 108 00
04. Copper 02 00 02 00
05. Distillery 177 33 142 02
06. Dyes & D.I 64 08 56 00
07. Fertilizer 110 12 97 01
08. Iron & Steel 08 00 04 04
09. Leather 70 11 59 00
10. Pesticide 71 07 64 00
11. Petrochem 49 00 49 00
12. Pharma 251 26 225 00
13. Pulp & Paper 96 20 76 00
14. Refinery 12 00 12 00
15. Sugar 392 49 342 01
16. TPP 97 03 80 14
17. Zinc 04 00 04 00
 Total 1551 178 1351 22
# Having adequate facilities to comply with the standards.
## Not having adequate facilities to comply with the standards Under Sectoral approach for prevention and control of pollution in different sectors,
Action Plan by the Working Group on Tanneries is being implemented. State Pollution
Control Boards have been advised to follow the suggestions given by the working Group
while dealing with tannery units. As regards distillery, the industries have been advised to
follow the protocol developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute and take necessary
measures to comply with the prescribed standards.
 At the request of All India Brick & Tiles Manufacturers’ Federation, the duration of
installation of fixed chimneys in place of moving chimneys kilns was extended upto June,
2002. This was subject to the units providing the necessary bank guarantee to the pollution
control agencies and the undertakings by the Federation that the conversion would be
completed by 30
 June, 2002. Despite several requests, no further extension has been
granted for last date, i.e. 30
 June, 2002 for implementation of standards for brick kilns. As
per the directions given by the Ministry, almost all States have started implementing the
Industrial Pollution Control
 The National River Conservation Authority (NRCA) in its meeting held on July 12,
1997 under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister, decided that the polluting industries
which are directly discharging their effluents into rivers and lakes, without requisite
treatment, should be asked to install the requisite effluent treatment systems within three
months, failing which closure notices should be issued. Accordingly, the State Pollution
Control Board (SPCBs)/Pollution Control Committee (PCCs) in Union Territories, were
asked by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on July 14, 1997 to take necessary
action and send the list of defaulting units. The criteria defined for the National River
Conservation Plan (NRCP) was followed, and the identified industries include those which (i)
discharge their effluents into a water course including rivers and lakes, and (ii) are either
involved of hazardous substances or discharge effluents with a BOD of 100 kg/day or more,
or both. The information received from the SPCBs/PCCs in respect of such industries were
compiled and the position was also reviewed by the Hon’ble MEF in a meeting taken by him
with the Chairman/Senior Officers of the Pollution Control Boards/Committees at Ministry of
Environment and Forests on  August 19, 1997. This resulted into identification of a total of
2026 defaulting industries from 15 States/UTs which included 1657 defaulters in the State of
Tamil Nadu.
 The programme was further intensified and four Regional Committees of experts were
constituted to monitor the compliance of the directions issued by the CPCB to SPCBs/PCCs
in this regard. A series of discussions have been held since then by the expert committees
with the concerned SPCBs/PCCs to monitor the progress of implementation of the
programme and to ensure issuance of appropriate directions to the defaulting industries by the
concerned SPCBs/PCCs. The important decisions taken in these meetings are communicated
to various Boards/Committees for implementation which include (i) the industries where the
commissioning of ETPs are going on satisfactorily are to be given a reasonable time
extension, (ii) the industries which have neither shown sufficient progress nor complying
with the standards are to be issued closure notices, (iii) the industries which are closed are to
be directed not to restart till they provide requisite ETPs, and (iv) the industries where there is
no ETP are to be issued confirmed orders for their closure with immediate effect.
 The matter concerning the large number of defaulting industries i.e. 1657 in Tamil Nadu
was also discussed in detail with the concerned SPCB to ensure whether these industries really conformed to the above mentioned criteria or not. It was confirmed that these
industries are actually those which have been identified by the SPCB in obedience of an order
of the Hon’ble High Court requiring inventorisation of the polluting units located within one
km of the water bodies in the State of Tamil Nadu. This inventory was, therefore, reviewed
vis-à-vis the criteria fixed for the identification of the Grossly Polluting Industries
discharging effluents into rivers/lakes. A total of 366 units out of the above mentioned 1657
units were accordingly found to be on conforming to this criteria. These 366 units have,
therefore, been retained for further follow ups under the national programme and the
remaining 1291 (1657-366) units through not polluting to the extend defined in the above
criteria, still remains covered under implementation of the orders of the Hon’ble Court at the
State level itself. Similar discussions in respect of the other States/UTs finally provided a
total of 851 defaulters as on August 1997 instead of 2026 for reasons explained above. The
status of these industries compiled on the basis of the discussions in the meetings of the
Regional Committees and information received and from the SPCBs/PCCs till September 30,
2002 is given in Table-11. Accordingly, it can be summarized that the number of defaulters
have reduced from 851 to five during the period of five years. This reduction is as a result of
the closure of 238 industries and 608 industries having requisite Effluent Treatment Plants
Summary Status of Pollution Control in Grossly Polluting Industries Discharging
their Effluent into rivers and lakes
(as on September 30, 2002)
S.No. State/UT No. of defaulters  No. of Complying No. of industries  No. of Defaulters
  as in August 1997, Industries after closed
   issuance of
01. Andhra Pradesh 60 42 18 00
02. Arunachal Pradesh 00 00 00 00
03. Assam 07 01 06 00
04. Bihar 14 10 04 00
05. Delhi* 00 00 00 00
06. Goa 00 00 00 00
07. Gujarat 17 14 03 00
08. Haryana 21 12 09 00
09. Himachal Pradesh 00 00 00 00
10. Jammu & Kashmir 00 00 00 00
11. Karnataka 20 18 02 00
12. Kerala 36 32 04 00
13. Madhya Pradesh 02 00 01 01
14. Maharashtra 06 03 03 00
15. Manipur 00 00 00 00
16. Meghalaya 00 00 00 00
17. Mizoram 00 00 00 00
18. Nagaland 00 00 00 00
19. Orissa 09 04 03 02  20. Pondicherry 04 00 04 00
21. Punjab 18 16 01 01
22. Rajasthan 00 00 00 00
23. Sikkim 00 00 00 00
24. Tamil Nadu 366 248 118 00
25. Tripura 00 00 00 00
26. UT-Andaman & Nicobar 00 00 00 00
27. UT-Chandigarh 00 00 00 00
28. UT-Daman & Diu,
 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 00 00 00 00
29. UT-Lakshadweep 00 00 00 00
30. Uttar Pradesh 241 181 59 01
31. West Bengal 30 23 07 00
 Total 851 608 238 05
*  Covered under the separate Plan involving shifting/relocation of the units as per the orders of
Honourable Supreme Court.
Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)
 The Ministry has undertaken a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for enabling the small scale
industries (SSI) to set-up Common Effluent Treatment Plants in the country. Since some of
the polluting SSIs are unable to afford installation of pollution control equipment. In order to
encourage use of new technologies for CETPs for existing SSI clusters of units a scheme for
financial assistance has been formulated.
The criteria for Consideration for Assistance
- CETPs in industrial estates or in a cluster of Small Scale Industrial units are encouraged.
- Central Assistance will be available only for clusters of SSIs.
- Projects for assistance will be prioritized on the basis of :
- Toxicity of pollutants
- Pollution load being generated and to be treated; and
- Number of units covered
- The CETPs are to be set up and managed by the State Industrial Infrastructure
Corporation (by whatever name known) or through an appropriate institution including a
cooperative body of the concerned units as may be decided by the State
Governments/SPCBs concerned.
- The project should be self-supporting for repayment of the loan and meeting operation
and maintenance costs.
- The project must formulate adequate institutional arrangements for cost sharing,
recovery of dues and management and ensure observance of prescribed standards. - The scheme must have the technical recommendation of the State Pollution Control
- The CETP project should have the conveyance system from the individual units to the
- Sludge characteristics (i.e. hazardous Vs. non-hazardous) from the primary and
secondary treatment of the CETP should be estimated. Therefore, the CETP should have
a sludge management plan which should be prepared based on the sludge
characterization and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project.
- Possibility of recycling/reusing the treated effluent from the CETPs by the member units
should be explored and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project.
- An environmental management and monitoring plan/programme to be prepared for the
CETP and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project.
- A legal agreement between the CETP Co. and its member units to be executed be
reflected in the feasibility report of the CETP project.
- The cost recovery formula developed for the CETP project should be ratified by all
members and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project.
- Necessary clearance be obtained from the concerned State Pollution Control Board for
discharging the treated effluent and be reflected in the feasibility report of the CETP
- All hazardous waste facilities associated with these CETPs should obtain clearance from
the concerned State Pollution Control Board and be documented in the feasibility report
of the CETP project.
- Pattern of Financial Assistance
- State  : 25% of the total
    project cost;
- Central subsidy  : 25% of the total
    project cost;
- Entrepreneurs contribution : 20% of the total
    project cost;
- Loan from financial  :  30% of the total
 institutions   project cost;
 (e.g. IDBI, ICICI or any other nationalised Banks, State Industrial Financial
Corporation etc.)
- If the CETP Co. does not desire to have loans from financial institutions/Banks they
may augment the same out of their own resources/contributions, i.e. the entrepreneurs
would then contribute 50% of the project cost.
- Central assistance upto 25% of the total cost of the CETP would be provided as a grant
to the Common Effluent Treatment Plant(s) on the condition that a matching grant is
sanctioned and released by the State Government. The CETP company should meet the remaining cost by equity contribution by the industries and loans from financial
- Central assistance will be provided only for the capital costs. No assistance will be
provided for recurring costs. The assistance will be released in four equal installments.
The first installment of 25% of the assistance will be released when a body has been
identified for the purpose of implementing the project, financial arrangements have been
obtained from the State Pollution Control Board and State Government has committed
its contribution.
- The second installment of 25 per cent and the third installment of 25 per cent will be
released after utilisation of the previous money released and adequate progress of work
subject to release of their proportionate shares by the State Governments.
- The fourth and the last installments will be released only when utilisation certificates for
the previous installments have been submitted and duly verified by the State Pollution
Control Boards.
- It may be of advantage to combine some components of CETP with the municipal
system. On such schemes, the municipalities have to pay their share of the cost.
- An assessment may be made about the present physical & financial status of the CETPs.
Funds released for the CETPs should be utilised for the CETP only and not for payment
for debts/banks loans etc.
- Large and medium scale industries other than 17 categories of heavily polluted
industries may join the CETP after the primary treatment or as considered necessary by
the State Pollution Control Board for the purpose of hydraulic load and for technoeconomic viability of the CETP. The 17 categories of industries need to provide their
own full-fledged effluent treatment facilities to confirm to the prescribed standards
before the effluent is discharged. However, the large and medium scale industries would
not be entitled for any subsidy meant for SSIs.
 During the current financial year, financial assistance has been provided to the on-going
eight CETP Plant project and for new plants which have been approved by the Appraisal
Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Kolkata
 A 30 mld (six modules of five mld capacity each) capacity CETP (Common Effluent
Treatment Plant) for treating the wastewater from the cluster of tanneries has been approved
for Calcutta Leather Complex (CLC) at Kolkata for an amount of Rs.65 crore. The cost of the
project is to be shared on 50:50 basis between Centre and the State Government. The Central
Government’s share for the implementation of the project is interest free loan. The detailed
project report for CETP (two modules of five mld capacity each) has been sanctioned at an
estimated cost of Rs. 31.20 crore. In addition, the proposal for Effluent Transport System
(ETS) for the CETP has also been sanctioned at an estimated cost of Rs. 11.59 crore. Central
funds amounting to Rs. 17.985 crore have been released for execution of the scheme so far.
The preliminary effluent treatment units of the CETP and ETS for CETP have been
completed. The CETP is now equipped to offer the preliminary facilities to take care of the
tannery wastes upto 10 mld as and when generated by the tanneries at CLC. None of the
relocated tanneries or new tanneries have as yet started the tanning operation at CLC. The
construction of the CETP is scheduled for completion by November, 2003. Spatial Environmental Planning
 Spatial planning is primarily used for land use plans, city planning, and is recently
extended to regional planning as well. Environmental issues, generally, were not incorporated
in the conventional town and country planning which has resulted in environmental
degradation and deterioration of the urban landscape. The pollution load in ambient air, water
and noise levels are also found to be higher in these areas. It is, therefore, imperative that the
authorities should look into the remedial measures. In this context, spatial environmental
planning has been initiated as a technique for conservation of the environmental resources
and for achieving developmental targets in an environmentally sound manner.
 To start with a nation-wide environmental planning and mapping programme is being
executed in the form of Zoning Atlas at the district level. It is followed by Industrial Estate
Planning and Development of Eco Industrial Estates, Environmental Management Plans,
Regional/State Planning Studies and Mapping of Environmentally Sensitive Zones. Urban
Environmental Information System is also evolved for collecting information about the basic
demographic profile of the urban area and a comprehensive human resource development
programme for providing training to various target groups. It is proposed to establish a
“Centre for Spatial Environmental Planning” at the existing premises of the Central Pollution
Control Board.
 The details of these activities are given below:
Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries
 The project on Zoning Atlases for Siting of Industries has been initiated at District and
Regional level for classifying the environmental status and to ascertain the pollution
receiving potentials of various sites. The study also identifies the possible alternate sites for
industries, through easy-to-be read maps (1:250,000 scale). Work for 63 districts was
completed earlier. During the year, 73 districts covering 21 States and one Union Territory
has been taken up. These include Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat,
Himchal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur,
Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh,
West Bengal, Goa and UT of Pondicherry.
Industrial Estate Planning & Development of Eco-Industrial Estates
 In continuation of the Zoning Atlas studies, the Industrial Estate Planning studies have
been taken up at micro level (1:50,000 and lower) to identify environmentally suitable and
acceptable sites for industrial estates. The study would also suggest infrastructure
requirement for waste disposal systems and measures for controlling the surrounding land
uses. Studies for nine sites have been completed and work for ten sites has been taken up.
 It is contemplated to develop Eco-industrial estates in the country in order to ensure
proper siting of industrial estates, planning of the pollution abatement infrastructure and
regulating development around these sites. In the pilot phase, technical support of German
Technical Cooperation (GTZ) will be taken under the Indo-German Bilateral Programme for
developing five sites as Eco-Industrial Estates.
Mapping of Environmental Sensitive Zones and Industrial Sites – State-wise
 The maps on Environmentally Sensitive Zones and Industrial Sites present the
Information on National Parks, Reserved Forests, Protection Forests and Industrial Sites. These maps were earlier completed for 12 States and in the current year, work is in progress
for Punjab, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and
Preparation of Environmental Management Plans
 The activities for preparation of Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) have been
undertaken by urban areas, mining blocks, tourism sites and Environmentally fragile areas.
As a priority project, EMP was initiated for Agra city during 2000-2001 and completed in
January, 2002 at an investment of Rs. 350 crores. Outcome of the study suggests need for
massive face-lift programme in the city of improving the physical infrastructure and urban
management. The study for preparation of EMP for Panchmarhi Biophere Reserve located in
Madhya Pradesh has also been completed and report is under finalization.
 Eco city is a city which is economically vibrant, socially equitable and environmentally
supportive. Such cities ensure environmentally compatible and energy efficient development
providing clean, pollution free surroundings and conservation of natural resources for higher
quality living. An eco city project  for Kottayam Kumarakom region was initiated, which was
extended for the Taj Eco city covering an area of 30 sq. km. around Taj Mahal to achieve
visible environmental improvement.
 Under the Tenth Plan, the project has been extended to small and medium towns in the
country. The towns selected for coverage in the first phase of the Eco city programmes are
Mathura (UP), Puri (Orissa), Vapi (Gujarat), Thanjavour (Tamil Nadu), Bharatpur
(Rajasthan), Rishikesh (Uttaranchal), Tirupati (A.P.), Shillong (Meghalaya), Baidhyanath
Dham (Deogarh, Jharkhand), Kottayam (Kerala) and Vrindavan (U.P.). The Minicipalities of
these towns have submitted proposals for financial assistance. An Eco city Advisory
Committee has been constituted for guiding the Programme and two meetings of the
Committee have so far been held.
Spatial Environmental Planning Network
 A comprehensive human resource development programme has been developed for
providing training to various target groups in the field of spatial environmental planning. The
training programmes are being conducted through a network of institutions, called SEP-NET
(Spatial Environmental Planning Network). The institutes included in the SEP-NET are : Tata
Energy Research Institute (TERI) - Delhi, Centre for Environment Planning & Technology –
Ahmedabad, Environment Protection Training and Research Institute - Hyderabad,
Environmental Training Institute – Chennai, National Productivity Council – Delhi, Disaster
Management Institute – Bhopal, School of Planning & Architecture – New Delhi and Steel
Authority of India Ltd. – Ranchi. The programme is supported by CDG with grants.
 In addition to a number of awareness programmes conducted at District level and handson-training to the pollution control board personnel the training programmes   were also
organized on themes such as Incorporation of EIA in Spatial Environmental Planning, Spatial
Environmental Planning in Emergency Planning, Regional Watershed Management in Spatial
Environmental Planning. Two overseas training programmes on “Spatial Environmental
Planning:- Introduction and Curriculum Development” were held and a website of HRDP
( has been launched. An evaluation manual has been finalized to
achieve the quality assurance. The training institutes in the Spatial Environmental Planning
Network (SEP-Net) and CPCB have started conducting training programmes. Urban Environmental Information System
 To provide information to the public in the form of a local environmental report to be
prepared by the Municipalities on the status of socio-economics, development and
environment of the towns and cities, “Urban Environmental Information System” is being
introduced in a few volunteering towns. The Memorandum of Understanding has so far been
signed in this regard with the municipalities  of Agra, Kanpur, Patna and Bhubaneswar.
Industrial Pollution Complaints
 During the year, Ministry has received more than 250 complaints regarding pollution
caused by industries. The complaints were mostly related to pollution being caused in air,
water, land and noise resulting in degradation of the eco-system. Some of the complaints
were also related to discharge of untreated or partially treated effluent thereby contaminating
water bodies, land and ground water. These complaints were attended to by calling reports
along with the exact status and comments from the State Pollution Control Boards / Pollution
Control Committees.
Establishment of Environment Protection Authorities
National Environment Appellate Authority
 The National Environment Appellate Authority (NEAA) was established under the
National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 (22 of 1997) to hear appeals with
respect to restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes of class of
industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to
certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and for matters connected
therewith or accidental thereto.
 The NEAA was established vide Notification S.O. 311 (E) dated 9
 April, 1997. The
Authority consists of a Chairperson (retired Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice
of a High Court), a Vice-Chairperson and such other members not exceeding three as the
Central Government deem fit.
The loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payments of Compensation) Authority for
the State of Tamil Nadu
 In compliance with Hon’ble Supreme Court’s order dated 28.8.1996 in Writ Petition
(Civil) No. 914 of 1991, namely, Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum versus Union of India and
others, this Ministry had constituted vide Notification S.O. 671(E) dated 30.9.1996 the Loss
of Ecology (Prevention and Payments of Compensation) Authority for the State of Tamil
Nadu to deal with the situation created by the tanneries and other polluting industries in
Tamil Nadu. The tenure of the Authority has been extended upto 30.9.2004 vide Notification
S.O. 1044(E) dated 27.9.2002.
 The Authority consists of a retired Judge of the High Court and two members and one
Member Secretary.
Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority for the National
Capital Region The Central Government had vide Notification S.O. 93(E) dated 29.1.1998 constituted
the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority for the National Capital
Region. The Authority is headed by Shri Bhure Lal, Secretary to the Government of India
with three other members and Chairman, CPCB as the convenor. The tenure of the authority
has been extended by three years upto January, 2006 with inclusion of two additional
 The Authority is empowered to exercise the powers under Section 5 of Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986 for issuing directions for compliance relating to violation of standards
for quality of environment, emission or discharge of pollutants and to take all necessary steps
to control vehicular pollution, restriction of industries causing environmental pollution and
monitor the progress of action plan drawn up by the Ministry on Pollution in Delhi as
contained in the “White Paper on Pollution in Delhi with an Action Plan”.
Central Pollution Control Board
 The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is an autonomous body of the Ministry set
up in September, 1974, under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974. It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards
(SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs), and also advises the Central Government
on all matters concerning the prevention and control of environmental pollution. The CPCB,
SPCBs and PCCs are responsible for implementing the legislation relating to prevention and
control of pollution; they also develop rules and regulations which prescribe the standards for
emissions and effluents of air and water pollutants and noise levels. The CPCB also provides
technical services to the Ministry for implementing the provisions of the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986.
 During the year, special thrust was given to nation-wide pollution prevention plan,
particularly with reference to combating vehicular pollution, pollution control in 17
categories of highly polluting industries, implementation of action plans for restoration of
environmental quality in critically polluted areas, noise pollution control, municipal solid
wastes and hazardous wastes.
 The Annual Action Plan (AAP) for 2002-2003 is an attempt towards the target set in the
Coimbatore Charter on Environment and Forests and to observe the effects of implemented
programs for development of environment. During the year, following activities received
major emphasis in preparation of inventory of polluting sources, Preparation of State of
Environment Reports of State/major cities, epidemiological studies, performance evaluation
of CETP/STP, Solid Waste Management (municipal, Biomedical and hazardous), plastic
waste management, Vehicular and noise pollution control, Prevention and control of
pollution in small scale industries, augmentation of existing air and water quality monitoring,
network monitoring of updating of Action Plan for identified problem areas. In addition,
emphasis has been given for bio-monitoring of national aquatic resources, monitoring of
specific pollutant in ambient air, updating of information on web-site, participation of
NGOs/public in various pollution abatement programs and to effectively carryout mass
awareness program. Proposals for strengthening of Zonal Offices with respect to building
construction on acquired land have been made.
Water Quality Monitoring
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme The water quality monitoring results obtained during 2001 indicated that faecal
pollution, indicated by high BOD and high coliform density, continue to be the predominant
source of pollution. This is mainly due to the large quantity of domestic wastewater being
discharged. An attempt is made to classify the observations under different levels of pollution
with respect to most critical parameters i.e. BOD, total & faecal Coliform. It is observed that
59% of the total 4119 observations taken on BOD during 2001 has BOD less than 3 mg/l,
which is same as observed during the previous year. However, number of observations with
BOD more than 6 mg/l has increased from 16% during the year 2000 to 18% during 2001
indicating that pollution load is on the increase and water bodies are further being polluted.
This can be attributed to water scarcity due to over-abstraction, low rainfall in many parts of
the country and increasing pollution load. However, the  number of observations having high
coliform density have somewhat reduced.
 State-wise number of observations falling under different BOD levels, total coliform and
faecal coliform,  the data indicate that Maharashtra has highest pollution level in terms of
organic pollution which is mainly industrial in nature followed by Delhi, Uttar Pradesh,
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Similarly, Coliform levels were found highest in
Uttar Pradesh.
 The water quality trend based on Biochemical Oxygen Demand, total Coliform and
faecal Coliform of past several years is presented in Fig 44 to Fig 46.
Fig. 44. Water Quality Trend based on Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand
Fig. 45. Water Quality Trend based on total ColiformFig. 46. Water Qulaity Trend based on Faecal Coliform
Status of Wastewater Generation and Treatment
 It is estimated that 22,900 MLD of domestic wastewater is generated from urban centres
against 13000 MLD industrial wastewater. The treatment capacity available for domestic
wastewater is only for 6,000 MLD, against 8,000 MLD of industrial wastewater. Thus, there
is a big gap in treatment of domestic wastewater. Government of India is assisting the local
bodies to establish sewage treatment plants under the Ganga Action Plan and subsequently
under the National River Action Plan.
Monitoring of Yamuna River for Assessment of Water Quality
 The Central Pollution Control Board is regularly monitoring Yamuna river on monthly
basis in Delhi segment at three locations i.e. Palla, Nizamuddin barrage and Okhla barrage. In
addition, monitoring of 22 drains, which are the major source of pollution in the river are also
being undertaken regularly. The water quality of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch is depicted in
Table-12. The total calculated discharge of these 22 drains is approx. 46.30 m3
/sec, which
contributes 311.05 tonnes of BOD load per day. From the total discharge of these drains
Yamuna receives more than 90% wastewater discharge and rest wastewaters contributed by
two drains joining canals. Similarly out of 311.05 tonnes of BOD load, Yamuna receives
283.98 tonnes of BOD load per day and rest received by canals.
 The Delhi segment of river Yamuna has oligotrophic head with saprobic tail end, and
characterized by high bacterial load (except at Palla) having high BOD with strong
disagreeable odour. The anaerobic condition in river is frequently reflected by masses of
gaseous sludge rising from the bottom and floating at the surface of water.
Bio-monitoring of rivers/water bodies
 The importance and use of biological monitoring system, as a cost-effective tool, has
been realized in recent past to maintain and restore the wholesomeness of water quality in
terms of ecological sustainability of various designated best-uses of water bodies. It has been
observed that the desired quality levels are quite often delinked with the observed water
quality of water bodies for designated best uses due to number of integrated environmental
management problems as a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization. On the basis of
environmental status, twenty four problem areas have been identified in the country. The recipient water bodies of these problem areas are bearing the affect due to environmental
 The bio-monitoring studies in water bodies existing in problem areas have been
undertaken at nineteen problem areas in the country in order to make an integrated approach
toward environmental management. The identified nineteen problem areas are Ambedkar
Nagar (Tamil Nadu), Angul, Talcher (Orissa), Ankleshwar (Gujarat) Bhadravathi
(Karnataka), Dhanbad (Jharkhand), Durgapur (West Bengal), Howrah (West Bengal),
Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Kochi (Kerala), Kala Amb (Himachal Pradesh), Manali (Tamil Nadu),
Nagda, Ratlam (Madhya Pradesh), Najafgarh Drain Basin (Delhi) Pali (Rajasthan), Parwanoo
(Himachal Pradesh) Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh)  and Vapi (Gujarat). The
main objective of the studies are :
- Biological assessment of water quality of surface water bodies existing in problem areas.
- To evaluate the improvement in water quality as a result of action taken for pollution
control in problem areas.
Bio-mapping of River Ramganga
 Monthly monitoring of river Ramganga has been undertaken at ten locations during the
year. From data, it is evident that as long as the river passes through the hills and reserve
forests (Jim Corbett National Park) the deterioration of biological water quality is negligible.
The deterioration of water quality starts in Bijnor district as some industries dispose their
waste into the river. At downstream of Moradab, where drain and river Dhela joins the river,
the river stretch is affected. The river itself a bit but sudden load from Rampur deteriorates its
quality to class D. Further downstream, it slowly recovers its biota and maintains Class C till
it joins the river Ganga.
Air Quality Monitoring
 The air quality of different cities/towns with respect to three criteria pollutants has been
compared with the respective National Ambient Air Quality Standards and categorized into
four broad categories based on an Exceedence Factor
 The analysis contains the air quality assessment of 155 monitoring locations (in 64
cities/towns), out of which 81 are in residential, 71 in industrial and three in sensitive areas.
At 49 locations (27 residential and 22 industrial), data are insufficient (< 50 monitoring days
in the year) with respect to gaseous pollutants and at 56 locations (36 residential, 19 industrial
and one sensitive) with respect to SPM. Such locations have not been considered for air
quality assessment.  Classification of Monitoring Stations
Area Type Number of monitoring  Number of locations
  stations with adequate   with inadequate data
  data          Gaseous   SPM
Residential 81   27  36
Industrial 71   22  19
Sensitive 3   -  1
Total 155   49  56
Water Quality of River Yamuna in Delhi Stretch (22 Kms.)
(January - December 2001)
S.N. Parameters   Monitored Location
   Palla Nizamuddin  D/s Okhla
    Bridge  Barrage
1. pH Min 7.18 6.94 6.91
  Max 8.42 7.55 7.43
  Av 7.76 7.22 7.22
2. Dissolved Oxygen mg/l Min 5.9 Nil Nil
  Max 9.8 3.7 2.0
  Av 8.5 0.80 0.40
3. Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand mg/l Min 1.0 6.0 6.0
  Max 3.0 54.0 77.0
  Av 1.5 22.7 41.3
4. Total Coliforms Nos./100 ml Min 600 80,000 88,000
  Max 69,000 7,00,00,000 7,00,00,000
  Av 22,662 88,89,166 1,02,53,166
5. Faecal Coliforms Nos./100 ml Min 34 500 2,000
  Max 5,000 1,41,00,000 57,00,000
  Av 882 26,23,075 21,37,216
Min = Minimum ; Max = Maximum; Av = Average
Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSPM) Monitoring
 RSPM levels were measured in various cities and towns in India Fig.47 and 48. RSPM
levels exceeded the NAAQS (annual average) in residential areas of Hyderabad,
Visakhapatnam, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Parwanoo, Bangalore, Cochin, Dehradun,
Tiruvananthapuram, Mumbai, Nagpur. Pune, Solapur, Angul, Rourkela, Jaipur, Chennai,
Kanpur, Lucknow and Kolkata. RSPM levels also exceeded the NAAQS (annual average) in industrial areas of Ahmedabad, Dehradun, Thiruvananthapuram, Solapur, Jaipur, Kanpur and
 RSPM levels were within the NAAQS (annual average) in residential areas of
Kozhikode and Shillong and industrial areas of Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Bangalore,
Mysore, Cochin, Kotayam, Koshokode, Palakkad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Pune, Rourkela and
Chennai. These results indicate that NAAQS (annual average) were not exceeded in above
mentioned cities. Fig.49 and 50 shows number of cities with critical, high, moderates RSPM
levels in residential and industrial areas.
Air Quality Non-attainment Cities
 CPCB has identified list of cities in India based on ambient  air quality data obtained
under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) for the period 1995 to 2001.
Fig. 47. RSPM Levels measured in Residential Areas during the year 2000
Fig. 48. RSPM Levels measured in Industrial Areas during the year 2000
Ambient Noise Level and Air Pollution in Delhi during Deepawali Ambient noise level monitoring was carried out at various locations in Delhi, i.e. all
India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Lajpat Nagar, New Friends Colony, East Arjun
Nagar, Connaught Place, India Gate, Mayur Vihar, Patel Nagar and Kamla Nagar on the
occasion of Deepawali festival. At Kamla Nagar noise monitoring was conducted from 18.00
hrs to 24.00 hrs., while at other locations, short duration (half hourly) noise level monitoring
was conducted between 18.00 hrs and 24.00 hrs. The average Leq noise level for short
duration at 8 monitored locations ranged between 73 dB(A) and 80 dB(A). The minimum
instantaneous value, recorded at Kamla Nagar, was 47 dB(A) (between 18.30 hrs. and 19.00
hrs) and the maximum value, recorded was 101 dB(A) (between 19.30 hrs and 20 hrs.). The
ambient noise levels were above the prescribed limit at all the locations but did not indicate
much variation as compared to the previous year’s data.
 Ambient air quality monitoring was also carried out at ITO Intersection and Ashok
Vihar using manual monitoring techniques and at East Patel Nagar (Pusa Road) using the
mobile monitoring van. The Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) were  high in
the evening hours on Deepawali day. The concentration of Sulphur dioxide (SO2
), Oxides of
Nitrogen (NOx
) and Carbon monoxide (CO) indicated a mixed trend which may be because
of varying traffic density.
Efficiency testing of Autoclaves used for hospital waste treatment by spore
testing methodology
 Bio-medical waste generation and its safe disposal has become a matter of serious
concern due to increasing health facilities & increase in number of hospitals, nursing homes
in metropolitan cities. The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998
notified by Government of India, has stipulated rules for proper collection, storage,
transportation, treatment and disposal of bio-medical waste. As per Bio-medical Waste Rules,
1998 the hospitals have to install treatment facilities like incinerators, autoclaves, etc. for
treatment of bio-medical wastes generated to ensure safe treatment & disposal of infectious
hospital waste. These treatment facilities should operate at designed efficiency level.
 A project has been undertaken by Central Pollution Control Board for assessment of
efficiency of autoclaves used in hospital waste treatment based on standardized spore testing
methodology, for In-situ assessment of the efficiency of autoclaves installed at various
hospitals within NCT-Delhi using biological indicator to ascertain 4 Log 10 reduction of
Bacillus Stereothermophilus indicator.
 During first phase of the project, the standardization of spore testing methodology has
been undertaken using Bacillus Stereothermophilus as biological indicator with a view for its
application for efficiency testing of autoclaves used for hospital waste treatment. The
standardized methodology has been used at autoclaves installed at various hospitals within
NCT-Delhi for testing their efficiency during the reporting year. The results indicate that the
Bio-medical waste treatment autoclaves installed at various hospitals are satisfactory with
respect to sterilization of bio-medical waste undertaken at these autoclaves. Fig. 49. Number of Cities (Residential Areas) with Critical, High, and Moderate RSPM Levels during
Fig. 50. Number of Cities (Industrial Areas) with Critical, High, and Moderate RSPM Levels during
Development of Guidelines/Rational for Prescribing Location Specific Standards
 The Central Board is involved in developing Minimal National Standards (MINAS),
which are applicable for entire nation considering techno-economic feasibility of control
equipment. However, considering the location specific sensitivity, the State Pollution Control
Boards can make the national standards stringent. For example, in critical areas, where single
or cumulative effect of emissions/wastewater discharges exceed the ambient air/water quality
requirement, a rational/structurised approach shall be followed in order to avoid bias in
granting permit conditions to individual industries, which are often challenged on the basis.
 Under this programme, efforts have been made to set approach for assessment of
assimilative capacity and fine tuning of the standards considering health protection,
environment protection, availability of technology and economic feasibility. With the
association of indigenous and expatriate consultants, an approach has been made which is
being debated among the experts for finalization. Besides, the approach is being applied in
selected study area for fine-tuning. These studies include inventorization of air and water
pollution sources, existing level of control technologies, application of air quality models
(ISCST3) and concepts of zone of initial dilution and mixing zones in respect of water quality
in surface water bodies. Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Industrial Emissions
 One of the common air pollutants emanating from the chemical industries is volatile
compounds. As it is well known that if emissions are emanating from a point source can very
well be controlled absorption, condensation, adsorption, thermal destruction etc. whereas, due
to volatile nature of various solvents and process fluids used in chemical sectors, the fugitive
emissions will arise from valves, flanges, pumps, storing units, effluent treatment plants etc.
In order to address the volatile organics, a project has been taken-up for studying oil
refineries and petrochemical plants in India. Possibilities of application of general VOC’s and
hazardous air pollutants on the lines of developed countries is being discussed and their
adoptability in terms of monitoring equipment, control equipment, investment on equipment
modifications, establishing emission factors etc. are being studied.
Review of Control Technologies for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Industrial
 Feasible disposal specific TDS limits have been developed and same have been
endorsed by the Expert Committee and are being considered by the Central Board. Under
capacity building programme, five days training programme on “Management of TDS in
Industrial Effluents” has been arranged through Environment Protection Training and
Research Institute, Hyderabad for 15 States and Central Board officers.
Pollution Control Implementation
Industrial Pollution Control along the Rivers and Lakes
 851 defaulting grossly polluting industries located along the rivers and lakes in the
country have been identified for priority actions under this programme, which was started in
August 1997. The follow-ups for the implementation of the programme, was intensified and
this has resulted in reduction in the number of defaulting industries from 93 in March, 2000
to 5 in September, 2001.
Environmental Surveillance Squad (ESS)
 Environmental Surveillance Squad in an important project undertaken by CPCB as per
the direction of Hon’ble Supreme Court. The main objective of the squad is to identify the
willful defaulter through surprise visits. Suitable action is also being taken against the erring
industries either directly by CPCB or through State Pollution Control Board under various
Environmental Acts.
 Under this project more than 50 industries have been visited and on the basis of the
recommendations, the competent authority of CPCB has issued closure notice to the
Hazardous Substances Management
 The Hazardous Substances Management Division (HSMD) is the nodal point within the
Ministry for management of chemical emergencies and hazardous substances. The main
objective of the Division is to promote safe management and use of hazardous substances
including hazardous chemicals and hazardous wastes, in order to avoid damage to health and
environment. The activities of the division can be grouped under three main thrust areas, viz.,
Chemical Safety; Hazardous Wastes Management and Solid Waste Management. The
Division is also the nodal point for the following three International Conventions. - The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal
- The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain
Hazardous Chemicals & Pesticides in International Trade.
- The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).
 Salient details of the programmes  and activities carried out during the year are :
Chemical Safety
- It has been decided to bring the entire gamut of activities relating to hazardous
substances under the frame-work of a comprehensive National Chemical Profile, which
is proposed to be prepared based on the UNITAR guidance document. The report will
assess the existing institutional, administrative, technical and legal infrastructure vis-à-
vis the requirement of safe handling of chemicals in the country. This activity is being
supported under the Canada-India Environmental Institutional Strengthening Project.
- The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical (MSIHC) Rules, 1989
and the Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules,
1996 are the main instruments for ensuring chemical safety in the country.
Implementation of both the Rules by the State/UTs governments is constantly pursued
and monitored. As on date, there are 1460 Major Accident Hazard Units (MAH) in 19
states of the country. As per the latest reports, 1395 on-site Plans and 118 Off-site plans
have been prepared. All the states except Bihar and Jammu & Kashmir have constituted
State Level Crisis Groups.
- A country report on “Status of Emergency Preparedness and Response in MAH Districts
in the Country” has been prepared. The study was undertaken to assess the Emergency
Preparedness and Response Systems existing in the country. The study has observed that
the status of Emergency Preparedness in the country needs improvement at different
levels. Immediate upgradation of availability of information, availability of resources to
respond to Fire Emergencies, availability of hospitals with poison treatment facilities
and other responses has been recommended for those districts having maximum MAH
- A pilot study was initiated earlier to develop GIS based Emergency Planning and
Response System in four identified States namely – Gujarat Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh. It has been decided to install the system consisting of a software
package and database at the district level. Training will also be provided to enable the
usage of this package along with district off-site emergency plans to improve emergency
management at the district level. Districts with a large number of Major Accident
Hazard Units namely-Bharuch, Valsad, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Kutch and Surat in
Gujarat; Thane, Mumbai, Nasik, Pune, Raigad and Ratanagiri in Maharashtra;
Tiruvallur, Cheenai and Salem in Tamil Nadu; Rangareddy, Medak, East Godawari,
West Godawari and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh have been included in this
project so far.
- A Sub-Scheme entitled ‘Industrial Pocket-wise Hazard Analysis’ has been in operation
since the Eighth Five Year Plan. Out of 180 Hazard prone industrial pockets, Hazard
Analysis studies have been initiated for 75 pockets. Out of these 75 studies, 69 have been completed. Based on the recommendation of the study reports, preparation of offsite plan for Kota has been initiated.
- Several cases of chemical accidents involving isolated storages have come to light in the
recent past. In this regard, lack of inventorization of such storages and poor enforcement
of legal provisions have been identified as the major factors. An inventorisation study
for the “Isolated Storage” in the country carried out last year has identified 347 Isolated
Storages. The distribution of such storages is as follows: Gujarat (41), Uttar Pradesh
(38), Tamil Nadu (32), Andhra Pradesh (31), Karnataka (25), West Bengal (24),
Maharashtra (23), Orissa (22), Rajasthan (22), Madhya Pradesh and Punjab (17), Delhi
(14), with the others being distributed all over the country.
- Under the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 as amended in 1992, all the MAH units
handling chemicals in excess of the threshold quantities referred to in the Schedule, are
mandated to take an insurance policy and deposit an equal amount in the Environment
Relief Fund (ERF) to ensure immediate payment to the chemical accident victims. It has
been decided to entrust the administration of the ERF to the United India Insurance
Company. Modalities are being worked out regarding service charges payable to this
- During the year, Phase-I of the study entitled “Development and Demonstration of
Process Technology for Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Oils and
Paints by Radiolysis” has been completed. The study has identified the types of PCBs,
their concentrations in oils, capacitors and paints scrapings, collected from different
sections of twenty seven ships and thirty plots/shipyards at Alang (Gujarat). Phase-II of
the study has also been initiated during the current year to develop and optimize a
radiolytic process for the decomposition of PCBs in oils, capacitors and paint scrapings.
Hazardous Waste Management
 As per current assessment, 4.4 million tonnes of hazardous wastes are being generated
by 13011 units spread over 373 districts of the country. The states of Maharashtra, Gujarat
and Tamil Nadu account for over 63% of the total hazardous wastes generated in the country.
This data, which is based on the waste categories indicated in the Hazardous Wastes
(Management and Handling) Rules, 1989, is being revised in the light of the amendments
carried out in January, 2000 and further amendments being carried out during the year.
 The legal instruments for management of hazardous wastes are the Hazardous Wastes
(Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, as amended in 2000 and 2002, the Biomedical
Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998/2000 and the Batteries (Management &
Handling) Rules, 2001. Major responsibility for implementing these rules is with the Central
Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)/Pollution Control
Committees (PCCs) and also with the State Departments of Environment. The status of
implementation of all these rules is regularly monitored.
 The fifth meeting of the Steering Committee for the management of Biomedical Wastes
was held during the year. It was decided that the Guidelines for Management and Handling of
Bio-medical Wastes shall be finalized after incorporating the comments of the members of
the Steering Committee. Certain amendments to the Bio-medical Rules are also proposed.
 The Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001 were notified in May, 2001 to
regulate the collection, channelization and recycling as well as import of used lead acid
batteries in the country. These rules inter-alia make it mandatory for consumers to return used batteries. All manufacturers / assemblers / reconditioners / importers of lead acid batteries are
responsible for collecting used batteries against new ones sold as per a schedule defined in
the rules. Such used lead acid batteries can be auctioned/sold only to recyclers registered with
the Ministry on the basis of their possessing environmentally sound facilities for
recycling/recovery. During the year implementation of these rules was monitored which
indicated that the status of implementation of these rules, especially relating to collection of
old batteries needs improvement. Following steps have been taken during the year to ensure
effective implementation of the Battery Rules :-
- Creation of awareness among all stake holders about management of lead acid batteries
through the print and electronic media. Issues relating to the management of lead acid
batteries are proposed to be covered in one of the episodes of the environmental serial
- 100% monitoring of all the lead acid battery recycling/reprocessing units registered with
the MoEF has been launched.
- Action is underway to put in place a mechanism for organized collection of used lead
acid batteries in the country.
- Directions have been issued to all the SPCBs/PCCs to check and close down backyard
lead smelters/fly-by-night operators.
 An Inquiry Committee was constituted during the year on the directions of the Hon’ble
Supreme Court in the matter of Writ Petition No. 657 of 1995 filed by the Research
Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy against the Union of India
and others, to verify the inventory of hazardous wastes such as waste oil, lead acid batteries
and other non-ferrous metal wastes lying in various ports and Inland Container Deports of the
country. The Committee has submitted the final report and findings have been submitted to
the Supreme Court.
 The W.P.No. 967/89 filed by Indian Council for Enviro Legal Action against UoI and
Others on Groundwater Pollution and Soil Degradation in Bichhri Village, Udaipur
(Rajasthan) due to indiscriminate disposal of Toxic Wastes, is being heard in the Supreme
Court. The Final Report of the ‘Remediation/Reclamation of Hazardous Waste Contaminated
Areas in Bichhri Village, Rajasthan” has been submitted to the Ministry after incorporating
the comments of the Advisory Technical Review Committee.
 As per the Hazardous Wastes (M&H) Rules, 1989 and 2000, all hazardous wastes are
required to be treated and disposed off in the manner prescribed. In the absence of common
disposal facilities in the country, permission has been granted to the hazardous waste
generating units in the small scale sector, for storing their wastes temporarily in a secure,
lined pit/facility within their premises. During the Tenth Plan Period it has been decided to
focus on the setting up of common TSDFs in different parts of the country. While support
would be provided for setting up two such common facilities in major hazardous waste
generating states, one facility would be supported in other states. The Ministry has so far
supported the setting up of common TSDFs at Maharashtra (TTC-Belapur) and Andhra
Pradesh (RR District). During the year, financial support has been provided to three more
TSDFs in the country – two in the state of Gujarat (Ankleshwar and Surat) and one in
Maharashtra (Taloja).
 The scheme for “Registration of Recyclers/Reprocessors of Wastes as Actual Users
having Environmentally Sound Management facilities” initiated in 1999, was continued during the year and two meetings of the Registration Committee were held. A total of 130
proposals were considered in these meetings. Registration was approved to 103 units,
applications of 4 units were rejected and the rest were deferred. As on date, 234 units have
been registered with the Ministry, out of which 78 are used/waste oil reprocessors, 71 are
lead scrap processing units while the remaining 83 are non-ferrous metal waste processing
units. During the year registration was also renewed in respect of 53 units whose registration
had expired. The list of registered recyclers/reprocessors is posted on the web-site of the
Ministry and is updated regularly. Rigorous monitoring of the registered units has been
initiated during the year to ensure that all the conditions included in the Registration Letter
are compiled with by the units. In case of lead acid battery recycling units 100% monitoring
of registered units has been undertaken. The Regional Offices of the Ministry have been
entrusted with the monitoring work.
Solid Waste Management
 The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000, the Fly Ash
Notification, 1999 and the Recycled Plastics (Manufacture & Usage) Rules 1999 constitute
the regulatory frame work for the management of solid wastes in the country.
- Committee on Plastic Waste Disposal constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri
Ranganath Mishra, former Chief Justice of the Hon’ble Supreme Court has submitted its
report containing recommendations for the management of plastic wastes in the country.
Draft amendments to the Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999, have
been issued during the year. The proposed amendments include, inter-alia, a ban on
manufacture of plastic carry bags less than 8 inches X 12 inches in size and a provision
for registration of recyclers of plastic with the SPCBs/PCCs.
Objections/comments/suggestions received in response to the draft amendments are
being examined.
- During the year, guidelines for use of fly ash have been formulated and circulated to the
State Governments. The guidelines cover use/disposal of fly ash by road and building
construction agencies, local bodies, State Pollution Control Boards and Thermal Power
- A High Level Committee under the chairmanship of Secretary (E&F) has been
constituted during the year with representatives from concerned Ministries, Technical
Institutions and All India Brick and Tile Manufacturers Federation to review the
implementation of the provisions of fly ash notification dated 14
 September, 1999.
Besides monitoring the implementation of the provisions of the Notification, the
Committee will also provide policy guidance on utilization of fly ash in various
sectors/developmental activities including incentives/disincentives required therefore. Fig. 51. Gas venting arrangements and green belt in background – secured landfill at Ankleshwar
International Conventions/Protocols
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal
- India is a signatory to the Basel Convention, which requires countries to ensure that
hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials are managed in an environmentally
sound manner.
- During the year, the Ministry participated in the 5
 and 6
 meetings of the Expanded
Bureau of Conference of Parties (COP) 5 and the 20
 meeting of the Technical
Working Group, the Legal Working Group meeting etc. of the Basel Convention. The
Ministry also participated in COP 6 of the convention held in Geneva in December,
2002. The four major issues discussed during COP 6 were the strategic plan for
implementation of the Basel Convention, the establishment of Basel Convention
Regional Centres, Mechanism for effective implementation of convention and
partnership with industry and multilateral environmental agreements.
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain
Hazardous Chemicals & Pesticides in International Trade.
- The Ministry participated in the 3rd Session of the Interim Chemical Review Committee
Meetting under the Convention.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
 India has signed the Stockholm Convention on POPs in May, 2002. The Convention
seeks to eliminate production, use, import and export of 12 POPs wherever technoeconomically feasible and in the interim period restrict the production and use of these
chemicals. A project titled “Preliminary assessment to identify the requirements for
developing a National Implementation Plan in India as a first step to implement the
Stockholm Convention on POPs” has been initiated during the year with support from GEF.
Legislations relating to Hazardous Substances Management- One of the recommendations of the High Powered Committee constituted under the
Chairmanship of Prof. MGK Menon in the mater of W.P.No.657 of 1995 being heard in
the Hon’ble Supreme Court, was that the Hazardous Wastes (Management and
Handling) Rules, 1989/2000 should be amended urgently based on waste prevention and
clean production, waste minimization and recovery prior to consideration of options
dealing with disposal of hazardous wastes. Accordingly, the Hazardous Wastes
(Management & Handling) Amendment Rules, 2002 have been notified on 21
2002. A Technical Expert Committee constituted during the year to finalise the
amendments has examined over 250 objections/comments/suggestions received from
concerned institutions/organizations. Based on this and the inputs given by the CPCB
and SPCBs, the amendments have been finalized and are expected to be notified shortly.
- During the year draft amendments to the fly-ash notification of 1999 have also been
notified. Use of fly-ash in construction, laying of roads and reclamation of low lying
areas has been made mandatory in the amendments. Objections/comments/suggestions
received in response to the draft amendments are being examined.
Institutional Strengthening
 The scheme for strengthening the manpower and infrastructure of the SPCBs/PCCs to
ensure effective implementation of various Rules relating to Hazardous substances
management, was continued during the year.

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